~から 2

Long time no study! (Well, maybe on your end. Been studying every day on my end.) But figured I should try to get back to this. It comes and goes in phases. Anyway. Today`s lesson is actually an extension on a previous lesson. So, that`ll be nice! And the best part, the grammar ends up functioning the SAME way. We`re just gonna make your sentences flow a little bit better. So, here we go. But first, vocabulary.

~から = From…; because…
ぜひ (是非) = By all means
ところで = By the way
みんな = All
もう = Already

Numbers (counting general items)
ひとつ (一つ)
ふたつ (二つ)
みっつ (三つ)
よっつ (四つ)
いつつ (五つ)
むっつ (六つ)
ななつ (七つ)
やっつ (八つ)
ここのつ (九つ)
とお (十)

Now, onto this. So, we all remember how から means “because,” right? Well, if not, click on the link up above and re-read the lesson covering that topic. Previously, we learned to use this grammar pattern by typing two separate sentences.
パーティーに行きません。明日、早く起きますから。 (I can`t go to the party. I have to wake up tomorrow.)

Now, why can`t we just say this in one sentence? Well, your mind is about to be blown. YOU CAN. Just change the order you say things in and BAM. Got yourself a beautiful sentence.
明日、早く起きますから、今日のパーティーに行きません。

Done and done. The only difference, the reason comes first. (Because I have to wake up early tomorrow, I won`t go to the party today.) (Also, if you see any conjugations in this lesson you are unfamiliar with, please let me know. I forgot I haven`t gone over potential yet and accidentally used it up until this point. I`m pretty sure I caught all of them, but let me know otherwise.)

Also, I can`t remember if this was mentioned, but short form can precede から. In fact, if the sentence ends in short form, it is highly recommended you precede から with short form. Consistency, folks. Plus, including keigo in the middle of the sentence and ending in short form is a little weird. However, it is not uncommon to say something like「…~するから、…しもす.」 You`re either all-in or all-out with the person you are talking to. Unless you`re in the weird negotiating stage. Which I am yet to fully comprehend.
Anyway, aside from my tangent, this is a SUPER short lesson. Mainly because it`s the exact same as a previous lesson with a little rearranging. So, any questions, please comment below! I would love to hear from you.

まだ~ていません

This lesson will be going over how to discuss what has already been done and what has yet to be done. As can maybe be seen looking at the grammar pattern in the title of this post, て-form will be involved. First, we need to look at two different words; もう (already) and まだ (Not yet.)

First, look at these two sentences.
I cleaned my room yesterday. (Just a simple fact.)
I have already cleaned my room. (Letting someone know you have already cleaned your room, probably after you were asked to do so or if you have.)

The second sentences is what we are working towards here. Here are the two sentences again, but in Japanese.
私はきのう(わたしの)へやをそうじしました。
私はもう(私の)へやをそうじしました。
The only difference is the addition of もう before the action. But what do we do when we want to say we have yet to do something? Again, take a look at the two sentences below.

I did not clean my room. (Just a simple statement.)
I have not cleaned my room yet. (You haven`t cleaned it, but this implies that you intend to do so.)

These two sentences have two different implications. This is what まだ~ていません will help us to communicate.
私はへやをうじしませんでした。 (I did not clean my room.)
私はまだへやをそうじしていません。 (I have not cleaned my room yet.)
The ていません portion means it “is still not done.” This pattern can be used with verbs suggesting change or actions. もう and まだ always go before the action being talked about. Never after.

Now, let`s practice!

  1. I already ate dinner.
  2. I have not exercised yet, today.
  3. I already threw the newspaper away.
  4. I already washed my hands.
  5. I have not done laundry yet.
  6. I already sang this song.
  7. I have not put on a shirt yet.
  8. I have not showered yet.

That`s all for today! If you have any questions or comments, please do so below. I would love to hear from you and answer any questions you may have! The answers to the above translations can be found below!

  1. 私はもうばんごはんを食べました。
  2. 今日、私はまだうんどうしていません。
  3. 私は、もう新聞をすてました。
  4. 私はもうてをあらいました。
  5. 私はまだせんたくをしていません。
  6. 私はもうこの歌を歌いました。
  7. 私はまだシャツをきたいません。
  8. 私はまだシャワーをあびていません。

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Qualifying Nouns

In a previous lesson, we talked about putting adjectives in front of nouns to describe them, like  きれいなへや or おいしいアイスクリーム. Well, much like this, short forms of verbs can be used. We will also go over adjectives a little. Here are some examples.

さくらさんはさびしい人です。 (Sakura is a lonely person.)

あの白いねこはだれのねこですか。 (As for that white cat, whose is it?)

あのおどっている人は上手ですね。 (That person dancing is good, aren`t they?)

あのきれいな女の人は私のかのじょです。 (That pretty woman is my girlfriend.)

So, as can be seen, aside from な-adjectives the dictionary forms are used. な-adjectives must be followed by な when preceding a noun. Verbs will always be in short form and い-adjectives will always be in dictionary form. That`s actually all I have for today! Super short. If you have any questions or comments, feel free to comment below!

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Short Past

Today, we have yet another look at short forms. However, this time we will be focusing on the past tense version. Before getting to this, let`s look at some vocab.

Nouns
いいこ (良い子) = Good child
いろ (色) = Color
おべんとう (お弁当) = Boxed lunch
かぶき (歌舞伎) = Traditional Japanese theatrical art
ギター = Guitar
きょねん (去年) = Last year
くすり (薬) = Medicine
コンサート = Concert
こんど (今度) = This time
さくぶん (作文) = Composition; essay
しけん (試験) = Test; exam
スキー = Ski
せんげつ (先月) = Last month
たんご (単語) = Word; vocabulary
ピアノ = Piano
ピザ = Pizza
びょうき (病気) = Illness

い-adjectives
あおい (青い) = Blue
あかい (赤い) = Red
くろい (黒い) = Black
さびしい (寂しい) = Lonely
しろい (白い) = White
わかい (若い) = Young

な-adjectives
いじわるな (意地悪な) = Mean-spirited

う-verbs
くすりをのむ (薬を飲む) = To take medicine
おどる (踊る) = To dance
おわる (終わる) = Something finishes (が)
にんきがある (人気がある) = To be popular
はじまる (始まる) = Something begins (が)
ひく (弾く) = To play (a string instrument or piano) (を)
もらう = To receive (を)

る-verbs
おぼえる (覚える) = To memorize (を)
でる (出る) = To appear; to attend (に); To exit (を)

Irregular verbs
うんどうする (運動する) = To do physical exercises
さんぽする (散歩する) = To take a walk

I know it`s a lot of vocabulary, so good luck! Do your best! And again, I highly recommend using Anki. It`s super helpful and free! (Unless you want to download it on your iPhone. but the computer version is free!)

Verbs

First, verbs. When it comes to positive past tense short form, change the verb to its て-form and then change the て or で to た or だ, respectively. Examples
読む -> 読んで -> 読んだ
食べる -> 食べて -> 食べた
See how it works? Change it to て-form, and then change て to た and で to だ. This will give you the positive past tense short form for verbs! Now, negative.The negatives are a bit easier. First, change the verb to its present tense short form, and then conjugate it like an い-adjective to the past tense and remove です. I hope that makes sense. Here are some examples.
読む -> 読まない -> 読まなかった
食べる -> 食べない -> 食べなかった
See how it works now? I feel my explanation was a little bit confusing.

い-adjectives
For い-adjectives, you conjugate them to their long form and then drop the です.
あおい -> あおかったです -> あおかった
あおい -> あおくなかったです -> あおくなかった

な-adjectives and nouns
For な-adjectives and nouns, you change でした to だった for positive.
きれいでした -> きれいだった
For negative, remove the です off the negative past long form.
きれいじゃなかったです -> きれいじゃなかった

That`s all for the conjugation part of things. These forms can also be used in the same manner as the present tense short forms. You can use them in casual conversation, to quote someone, or to say what you think. A little note on quoting. When you quote something someone said, it will always be in the same tense. If the person said something in the past tense, quote it in the past tense. If they said it in the present tense, say it in the present tense. Let`s do some practice! Just in case you forgot, here is the description on grammar for quoting and saying what you think.

Translate the below using short form.

  1. I went to watch Kabuki.
  2. I drank medicine.
  3. I wrote an essay.
  4. Ryousuke is mean.
  5. I like to dance.
  6. I was lonely.

Translate the following using long form (short form where grammar calls for it.)

  1. Sakura said she had a test yesterday.
  2. Ryousuke said he was sick.
  3. I think Keisuke exercised yesterday.
  4. I think Ryousuke was not a good child.

That`s all we have for today. I hope the explanations made enough sense! If you have any questions or comments, please do so below! I would love to help in any way I can. Your answers can be found below.

  1. 私はかぶきを見に行った。
  2. 私はくすりを飲んだ。
  3. 私は作文を書いた。
  4. りょうすけさんはいじわる。
  5. 私はおどるのが好き。
  6. 私はさびしかった。

 

  1. さくらさんはきのうテストがあったと言っていました。
  2. りょうすけさんはびょうきだったと言っていました。
  3. 私はけいすけさんはきのううんどうしたと思います。
  4. 私はりょうすけさんはいい子じゃなかったと思います。

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Seventh Kanji Set

I. 午 = Noon (4 strokes)

A. Onyomi = ゴ

2. 後 = After (9 strokes)

A. Onyomi = ゴ

B. Kunyomi = あと、うし

3. 前 = Front (9 strokes)

A. Onyomi = ゼン

B. Kunyomi = まえ

4. 名 = Name (6 strokes)

A. Onyomi = メイ

B. Kunyomi = な

5. 白 = White (5 strokes)

A. Onyomi = ハク

B. Kunyomi = しろ

6. 雨 = Rain (8 strokes)

A. Onyomi = ウ

B. Kunyomi = あめ

7. 書 = Write (10 strokes)

A. Onyomi = ショ

B. Kunyomi = かく

8. 友 = Friend (4 strokes)

A. Onyomi = ユウ

B. Kunyomi = とも

9. 間 = Interval (12 strokes)

A. Onyomi = カン、ゲン

B. Kunyomi = あいだ

10. 家 = House (10 strokes)

A. Onyomi = カ

B. Kunyomi = いえ

11. 話 = Tale (13 strokes)

A. Onyomi = ワ

B. Kunyomi = はな、はなし

12. 少 = Few (4 strokes)

A. Onyomi = ショウ

B. Kunyomi = すこ、すく

13. 古 = Old (5 strokes)

A. Onyomi = コ

B. Kunyomi = ふる

14. 知 = Know

A. Onyomi = チ

B. Kunyomi = し

15. 来 = Come

A. Onyomi = ライ

B. Kunyomi = く、こ、き

Now, as usual, here are words that use the above kanji. Try your best to figure them out using the guide lines for kun and on yomi use!

  1. 午前
  2. 午後
  3. 午前中
  4. ~の後
  5. 後で
  6. 後ろ
  7. 名前
  8. 白い
  9. 書く
  10. 友だち
  11. 友人
  12. 時間
  13. 二時間
  14. 人間
  15. 作家
  16. 話す
  17. 電話
  18. 会話
  19. 少し
  20. 少ない
  21. 少女
  22. 古い
  23. 中古
  24. 知る
  25. 知人
  26. 来る
  27. 来ます
  28. 来ない
  29. 来日

Those are all the example words today! I hope you were able to get some of them. The answers will be found below.

  1. ごぜん (AM)
  2. ごご (PM)
  3. ごぜんちゅう (During the morning)
  4. ~のあと (After…)
  5. あとで (Later on)
  6. うしろ (Behind)
  7. まえ (In front)
  8. なまえ
  9. しろい (White – adjective)
  10. しろ (White – noun)
  11. あめ (Rain)
  12. かく (To write)
  13. ともだち (Friend)
  14. ゆうじん (Friend)
  15. じかん (Time)
  16. にじかん (Two hours)
  17. あいだ (Between)
  18. にんげん (Human being)
  19. いえ (House)
  20. さっか (Author)
  21. はなす (To speak)
  22. はなし (Story)
  23. でんわ (Telephone)
  24. かいわ (Conversation)
  25. すこし (A little)
  26. すくない (A few)
  27. しょうじょ (Young lady)
  28. ふるい (Old)
  29. ちゅうこ (Secondhand)
  30. しる (To know)
  31. ちじん (Acquaintance)
  32. くる (To come)
  33. きます (Come; will come)
  34. こない (Won`t come)
  35. らいにち (Visit to Japan)

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